The effect of heavy metal air pollution arising from local metallurgical activities on albino rat


Adamu Yunusa Ugya1, Tijjani Sabiu Imam2, Agamuthu Priatamby3

ABSTRACT Introduction: The ecological equilibrium of the earth is endangered by the chemical process industries as most industries continue to spew chemical toxicants into the environment. Since local metallurgical activity is inevitable in Nigeria. Aim: This research is aimed at assessing the effect of heavy metals air pollution arising from local metallurgical activities on Albino rat. Methods: Particular matter samples were collected for 24h at four different sites twice a month using a high volume air sampler. Point A is Bakin Dogo Market, Point B is Old Panteka market, Point C is new Panteka market and Point D is U/Ma’azu. All the collected samples were analyzed for heavy metals using standard laboratory procedures. Six hundred newly born male albino rats were collected from National Institution for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR) and were exposed to the sampling points twenty four hours daily via out the experimental period. Mortality, haematological and histological parameters were investigated. The rat tissues were also digested for the determination of Bioconcentration factor (BCF). Result: The result obtained shows high Concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni) above the recommended limit by European commission (EC), World health organization (WHO) and NEPM (National Environmental Protection Measures). Higher BCF was obtained for all the heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu and Cd) which was attributed to the higher changes in Mortality, haematological and histological parameters if compare to the control. Conclusion: The studies shows how heavy metal air pollution could cause Mortality and also bring about changes in haematological and histological parameters, which resulted due to high BCF. It is thereby recommended that local metallurgical activities should be closely monitored by environmental agencies such as Kaduna state environmental protection agencies (KEPA) and Federal environmental protection agencies (FEPA). The government should also make regulations that will mandate the paying of environmental degradation tax owing to the daily multiplication of vehicles and other automobile materials.