Perspective - American Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health (2022)
Preventive Techniques for CancerMonika Laszkowska*
Monika Laszkowska, Department of Public Health, Daffodil International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Email: Laszkowm28@mskcc.cpm
Received: 13-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. AJPMPH-22-73486; Editor assigned: 15-Jul-2022, Pre QC No. AJPMPH-22-73486 (PQ); Reviewed: 01-Aug-2022, QC No. AJPMPH-22-73486; Revised: 08-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. AJPMPH-22-73486 (R); Published: 16-Aug-2022
A set of illnesses known as cancer involve abnormal cell proliferation and have the ability to invade or spread to different bodily regions, these stands in contrast to benign tumours, which remain stationary. Potential warning signs and symptoms include a lump, unusual bleeding, a persistent cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel habits. These cancerous symptoms might exist, but there might also be other causes. Humans are susceptible to over 100 different cancers.
Cancer has no symptoms when it first develops. As the mass enlarges or ulcerates, signs and symptoms develop. The type and location of the malignancy will determine the results. Specific symptoms are rare. Many typically develop in people who also have other illnesses. Cancer can be difficult to diagnose because it is a “great imitator.” Following a diagnosis, people may experience anxiety or depression. Suicide risk is roughly twice as high in cancer patients.
Active steps to lower cancer risk are referred to as cancer prevention. Environmental risk factors are to blame for the great majority of cancer cases. Numerous of these environmental elements can be influenced by lifestyle decisions. Consequently, cancer can usually be avoided. The environmental causes of between 70% and 90% of common malignancies make them potentially avoidable. Avoiding risk factors like cigarettes, excessive weight/obesity, poor food, physical inactivity, alcohol, sexually transmitted infections, and air pollution could save more than 30% of cancer fatalities. Furthermore, it is possible to view poverty as a secondary risk factor for human cancer. Not all environmental factors may be prevented by changing one’s behavior, such as naturally existing background radiation and malignancies brought on by inherited genetic abnormalities.
Dietary: Although numerous dietary suggestions have been made in an effort to lower the chance of developing cancer, the research backing them up is inconclusive. Obesity and alcohol use are the main dietary factors that raise risk. Reviews and meta- analyses have suggested that diets heavy in red meat and low in fruits and vegetables are to blame, but no clear consensus has been reached. A 2014 meta-analysis revealed no connection between cancer and fruits and vegetables. The use of coffee is linked to a lower incidence of liver cancer. Studies have connected consuming too much red or processed meat to an increased risk of breast, colon and pancreatic cancer; this could be because foods cooked at high temperatures contain carcinogens. In general, dietary guidelines for cancer prevention advocate avoiding processed and red meat, animal fats, pickled foods, and refined carbs while placing an emphasis on vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and seafood.
Medication: There are some situations where drugs can be used to prevent cancer. NSAIDs lower the incidence of colorectal cancer in the general population, but when taken as a preventative measure, they have negative effects on the heart, gastrointestinal tract, and overall health. According to research, taking aspirin every day can cut your risk of dying from cancer by 7%. People with familial adenomatous polyposis may develop fewer polyps while using COX-2 inhibitors, but they also have the same side effects as NSAIDs. The risk of breast cancer is decreased in high-risk women who take tamoxifen or raloxifene daily. A 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor like finasteride may have advantages or disadvantages, although this is unclear. The prevention of cancer does not seem to be aided by vitamin supplementation. Although low blood levels of vitamin D are associated with an increased risk of developing cancer, it is unknown if this association is causative and whether vitamin D supplementation offers cancer prevention. In high-risk individuals, beta-carotene supplementation raises lung cancer rates. Colon polyps may proliferate and folic acid supplementation is ineffective in preventing colon cancer. There is no evidence that selenium supplementation lowers the risk of developing cancer.
Vaccination: There are vaccines available that can shield you from some viruses known to cause cancer. Gardasil and Cervarix, vaccines against the human papillomavirus, reduce the possibility of acquiring cervical cancer. The hepatitis B vaccine lowers the risk of liver cancer by preventing infection with the hepatitis B virus. Where resources permit, the administration of hepatitis B and human papillomavirus vaccinations is advised.
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